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Red currants contain many vitamins and minerals. To take advantage of the gifts of fruit-bearing bushes, they should be provided with full-fledged care, one of the conditions of which is pruning.
Let's figure out how to cut red currants in the fall, find out what procedures will help to form a bush correctly, and also decide on the optimal time for them.
- Types of red currant pruning
- What is the purpose of trimming, deadlines
- How to prune red currants in the fall
- How to rejuvenate red currants
- Formative pruning
- Pruning red currants after harvest
Types of red currant pruning
When caring for a red currant shrub, it is periodically necessary to cut off branches that bear little or no fruit at all. It is also worth removing broken and low-growing shoots.
The yield of red currants directly depends on the degree of illumination of the bush. For this purpose, the branches are removed, which block the access of the sun's rays to the main fruiting processes.
However, you should not cut off all that is superfluous at once and in large quantities. In this case, the plant will spend energy not on vegetative processes, but on recovery.
In addition, intensive pruning often leads to the formation of tops - upright shoots with weak branching. The spinous processes do not bear fruit.
Before pruning red currants in the fall, you need to determine the specific purpose of the procedure being performed.
Within the framework of this criterion, 3 types of pruning are differentiated.
|Rejuvenating||The purpose of this pruning is to remove old unproductive shoots. Red currant shoots stop bearing fruit at 6-8 years of age|
|Formative||The procedure is needed to give the shrub a neat or decorative shape, which also facilitates access to the crop.|
|Sanitary||Such pruning is not tied to a specific season. It is held from early spring to autumn. The point of the procedure is the timely removal of pest-infested shoots. Also, sanitary pruning after winter includes the destruction of branches damaged by frost or broken under the weight of snow. Removing thickening shoots and outgrowths growing inside the crown is also considered a sanitary measure.|
For what purpose is pruning carried out, deadlines
Some gardeners forget about their fruit-bearing plants immediately after harvest. However, lack of proper care negatively affects the level of fruiting.
The quantity and quality of berries will decrease every year. To avoid such a fate, you should competently take care of garden plants, unpretentious at first glance.
Pruning is a procedure that contributes to obtaining a bountiful harvest, its main goals are:
- getting larger berries;
- improving the quality of illumination of internal shoots;
- stimulation of the vegetative function of the plant;
- removing old, diseased, broken branches that receive nourishment without bearing fruit;
- simplification of care and harvesting.
Autumn pruning is started only after the branches of the bush are completely exposed. It should be finished before the first frost. The optimal time to complete the procedure is October.
Let's watch a video on how to properly trim red currants:
How to prune red currants in the fall
The structure of the red currant bush is similar to the structure of the black one. However, its shoots bear fruit twice as long. In addition, the formation of red currant berries occurs at the tops of the branches.
That is why the tops of mature processes should not be shortened, even if they stand out from the general picture. Possibly disturbing the appearance of the bush with its length, the shoot is in the prime of fertility.
The very first pruning is carried out after the autumn planting of a red currant seedling.
While the plant is at rest, the grower shortens the shoots by 50% on the outer bud. After a year, the procedure is repeated.
In the future, it will be necessary to carry out constant sanitary procedures.
Red currants are very sensitive to lack of light. Excessive thickening quickly leads to a decrease in yield. The optimal number of shoots of a red currant bush is 15-20 pieces.
Video about pruning red currants in the fall:
After 7-8 years after planting, an annual anti-aging pruning is carried out. Competent rejuvenating and sanitary care of the red currant shrub has a positive effect on the length of the plant's life cycle.
On average, a carefully groomed shrub can actively bear fruit for 25-30 years.
There are several simple guidelines for pruning red currants that will be useful for beginners:
- the main task is to free the middle of the bush for its full illumination by the sun's rays;
- after pruning, 4 shoots of each age should remain on the currants;
- in order not to damage the kidney, the cut should be done at a distance of 5 mm from it. At the same time, the secateurs are held at an angle of 45 degrees to the process;
- tops of shoots 2 and 3 years old are not shortened;
- unproductive shoots are removed completely.
How to rejuvenate red currants
To rejuvenate an adult shrub, you should remove the most mature branches that have begun to bear little fruit or have stopped altogether. Such shoots are dark in color and thick, and older shoots are often affected by lichen.
The rejuvenating procedure is usually performed for the first time in the 7-8th year after disembarkation. Then it should be part of the annual redcurrant care routine.
For rejuvenating pruning, the gardener will need a pruner, garden var, top dressing, mulch.
This procedure is performed as follows:
- adult branches that have ceased to bear fruit are cut with a pruner at the root;
- cuts are processed with garden varnish;
- thin out the zero shoots growing in depth;
- dressing is carefully applied to the soil. In this case, it is important not to damage the root system;
- the soil around is watered abundantly with water and mulched.
With the help of this procedure, the shrub gradually takes on a beautiful shape, and the gardener can only maintain it throughout the entire life cycle of the plant. In addition to decorative functions, such pruning helps to improve fruiting.
The choice of a specific form depends on how often the shrubs are planted. If the plant is densely placed, pruning should be more intense.
The most common form of red currant in the European part of the CIS is bush. Maintaining this form does not require much effort and special techniques.
To get a neat shrub, follow the standard pruning guidelines.
In Western Europe, the standard form of cultivation is more popular. This concept implies the formation of a bush on a single high trunk with a height of 20-25 cm. The advantage of this form is that the berries are located high enough and do not get dirty on the ground. In addition, the standard bushes look very elegant and unusual.
To grow a bush in European likeness, you should tackle this issue immediately after planting:
- it is necessary to completely cut off all processes, except for the central one. The remaining shoot (stem) is cut in half on the side of the outer bud;
- the next year, all buds are removed to the height of the trunk. To form the skeleton of the bush, 4 multidirectional shoots are left. These branches are shortened in half by the outer bud;
- in the 3rd year, the stem is cleared again, and root growth is also cut out to zero. Leave the most viable shoots of the 2nd order, shortening them by 50%;
- then you need to annually eliminate broken, damaged, pest-infested branches. During the period of setting berries for better fruiting, unproductive shoots are shortened by 8-10 cm.
Not all varieties of currants allow high-quality implementation of the standard form. The most suitable for this are the Firstborn and the Dutch Red
It should also be noted that shrubs that grow on a trunk have a shorter life cycle.
The shape of a currant bush like a trellis looks very elegant. In addition to decorative functions, such a planting greatly facilitates the process of fertilizing and picking berries.
Also, this form well opens the plant to the sun's rays and insects that perform the functions of pollination.
The formation of a bush on a trellis goes through the following stages:
- a selection of seedlings with 3 well-developed shoots;
- the central shoot will act as a support, 2 lateral ones are placed opposite each other at a height of about 30 cm from the soil;
- the formation of the next tiers as the shoots grow and the removal of excess branches;
- after the final formation of the trellis, the central shoot is annually cut to the lower bud. The lateral processes are shortened by 2-3 cm.
Pruning red currants after harvest
Some gardeners prefer to prune currants in the summer immediately after harvest.
There are pretty good reasons for this:
- a large amount of sunlight activates the processes of photosynthesis in young growth;
- the intensive growth of internal shoots at this time forms an elegant crown;
- there is no risk of contamination of the sections with fungal infections.
However, if a particular currant bush is too weak in growth, the pruning procedure is postponed until autumn.
If the gardener wants to get a bountiful harvest of red currants every year, timely pruning should not be neglected. This procedure is rarely difficult even for amateurs.
The main thing is to do the work during the period when the plant is at rest, and not to get carried away by excessive removal of shoots.