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To develop new varieties that could compare favorably with the old ones, breeders have to deal with crossing different varieties. This is how the Sverdlovchanka pear was created.
- Breeding history
- Description of the variety
- Pear growing technology Sverdlovsk
- Why fruit falling can be observed
- Diseases and pests, control and prevention
This is the fruit of the joint work of two breeding stations Saratov and Sverdlov. Initially, the variety was created at the Sverdlovsk station by pollination of Lukashovka seedlings with a mixture of specially selected pollen.
At the next stage, the scientists chose one of the seedlings, which they began to propagate through grafting. At this stage, the seedlings were transported to the more southern Saratov, where the research of the new variety was continued with subsequent distribution.
The best indicators for fruiting were obtained in the Saratov region. In addition, it is recommended for breeding in the Volgo-Vyatka and Central regions of the country.
Now, for pollination of this variety, Permyachka pear and Severyanka pear are used, perfectly adapted to the harsh conditions of middle latitudes, which has a positive effect on the level of fruiting. These frost-resistant varieties, traditional for the cooler regions of the country, are optimal pollinators.
Description of the variety
It is most often grown for export, as the fruits ripen in early autumn. Fruiting is abundant and regular.
Other features of the tree include:
- Compact crown of medium density and round shape. The bark of the central branches is greenish-gray;
- Fruits appear on ringlets at the age of two years;
- The leaves are dark green, glossy, ovoid, sometimes elliptical in shape. The cuttings are elongated, with saber-like growths;
- The flowers are white, small in size, the shape resembles a bowl. Color appears late;
- The variety is self-fertile; it will not bear fruit without pollination by extraneous varieties. That is why it is worthwhile to select a pollinator for the pear of Sverdlovsk in advance;
- The fruits are large, on average they reach from 130 g to 140 g;
- The shape of the fruit is elongated, pear-shaped, sometimes short. The surface is smooth, the color changes to yellow with a slight blush when ripe. The stalks are elongated, green in color, holding the fruit, protecting it from premature falling to the ground. This is important to preserve the presentation of the fruit;
- The pulp of the fruit is distinguished by a yellowish tinge, rare inclusions of stony cells, a sweet and sour taste and a pronounced pleasant smell;
- The first crop can be taken already in the third year after planting;
- Differs in high frost resistance, can withstand temperature drops up to - 38? C.
In the conditions of the Urals and more northern regions of the country, the fruits ripen a little later. The collection can begin here in the middle or end of October.
To increase the indicators of frost resistance, it is worth growing the Sverdlovchanka on a winter-hardy trunk: the Ussuri pear or hybrids.
The main features of the fruit are: pleasant taste, compactness of the tree, high rates of fruiting. Recommended for use in the Urals and northern regions.
Pear growing technology Sverdlovsk
Before you start planting a tree, you need to purchase a seedling. When buying, you should carefully examine the tree, check if there is any damage or traces of pests on it.
Saplings can be planted both in spring and autumn, depending on the area. So, closer to the north, planting trees in the autumn is not recommended, since they may not have time to acclimatize before the first cold snap.
In addition, you should pay attention to the following points:
- A pear loves the sun, so for planting it is worth choosing an open place where it would not be shaded by other trees or walls of houses;
- The soil should be sandy-limestone. A pit, based on 70 cm depth per 100 cm width, is best prepared seven days before disembarkation;
- Immediately before planting, the soil must be loosened and a stake driven into the middle of the hole, after which a little soil mixed with fertilizers must be poured;
- After preparing the soil, place a seedling in the hole and gently spread all the roots. In this case, it is worth making sure that the root collar does not fall below five centimeters from the surface of the earth;
- Having carefully covered the roots, the tree needs to be watered with two buckets of water and covered with humus.
Until the seedling is completely rooted, it is worth watering it as often as possible. In this case, you should not loosen the earth, do not let it dry out.
If in the second year of growth the pear begins to lag behind in development, it is recommended to start introducing complementary foods in the summer. For this, humus or a mixture of peat and soil is perfect.
You need to prune the tree every year, until it dries completely. It is recommended to do this in autumn or spring. Spring is more suitable for the northern regions. Slices should be covered with garden varnish without fail.
Pruning in the summer is not recommended, since the leaves are cut off along with the extra branches, which negatively affects the well-being of the pear.
The basic rules for forming a crown include:
- Pruning should be done with an extremely sharp pruning shears. The sections should be as smooth as possible;
- Cutting off is necessary in persistent warm weather in order to protect the plant from freezing in the event of a cold snap;
- A two-year-old seedling should be cut at a height of 0.5 m from the base. Thus, the main trunk should be shortened by a quarter;
- In order to prevent abundant and unnecessary branching of the tree, it is recommended to thin out the branches every year. In addition, it contributes to more free access of sunlight to the lower leaves;
- It is worth trimming just under the very base; you should not leave "hemp" in the places of the cuts;
- After removing the branch, the place of damage must be covered with pitch or, if it is not at hand, with ordinary paint.
Since Sverdlovsk is a frost-resistant variety, do not forget that a snowdrift must be present at the root in winter.
Subject to all the rules of cultivation, the pear will delight the owner with abundant fruiting, even in the cool northern regions.
Why fruit falling can be observed
The problem of falling fruit can arise not only for beginners, but also for experienced gardeners. The mortality rate may be small, but often its scale greatly reduces the quality of the product.
Most often this happens due to overloading the tree, when the branches simply do not support the weight of the fruit.
Another common cause of falling fruit can be too dry and hot weather, which may be typical of the last summer month. This is due to the fact that a cork layer begins to form at the stalk.
Its appearance provokes an acute lack of moisture and micronutrients and macronutrients.
Another reason for the fall: long-term stagnation of water at the roots of the tree. In this case, it becomes waterlogged. In addition, a fall can be triggered by a disease such as septoria.
You can reduce the risk of fruit falling off by timely watering and applying a small amount of mineral fertilizers that strengthen the tree.
Also, you can use KANU spraying or foliar fertilizing with urea.
Falling fruit is one of the main concerns of the grower. To prevent it, you should carefully monitor the condition of the tree, do not allow the soil to dry out or excessive moisture.
Diseases and pests, control and prevention
One of the main features of Sverdlovskaya is its resistance to pests and diseases. This reduces the time and money spent on caring for the tree. You can only spend money on disinfecting drugs.
To minimize the risk of pests or diseases, it is recommended:
- For prevention purposes, spray the tree with special preparations from time to time;
- Do not forget about the systematic application of fertilizers, which will significantly increase the defenses of the plant's immunity;
- Constantly clean the area around the root from debris and weeds that can be carriers of diseases or serve as a haven for parasites;
- Loosen the topsoil systematically. To do this, you need to dig up the soil at the trunk.
Like other trees, pears of this variety can be damaged by aphids, grinders, and other parasites. To prevent the development of the problem, it is recommended to monitor the condition of the plant and not skimp on prophylactic agents.
Sverdlovchanka pear is a common variety, which is distinguished by its high yield and excellent taste. Differs in frost resistance and, with proper care, will delight gardeners with a large number of juicy fruits.
When watching the video, you will learn how to properly cut a pear and roll the crown of a tree: