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The apple tree is a versatile crop that is used to grow in almost any climatic conditions. This culture, although not demanding, but not all varieties can develop successfully, and even more so bear fruit in Siberia.
- Features of apple trees for Siberia
- White filling and Darkie
- Gornoaltaiskoe and Bayana
Features of apple trees for Siberia
So, what qualities should apple trees have for growing in difficult climatic Siberian conditions? The most important requirement is a sufficiently high level of winter hardiness. All varieties bred to date can be divided into high, medium and low winter tolerance.
Apple trees belonging to the first group tolerate 40-50 ° C without any problems, and it is they that are suitable for Siberia. The ripening period, in the conditions of a short summer, which is typical for Siberia, only early and mid-season varieties can give a full harvest. When choosing apple trees for Siberia, the height of the trees also plays a significant role.
Tall varieties are more likely to be damaged by frost and strong winds. High adaptive properties of the variety. Apple trees, which have the ability to quickly adapt to different weather conditions, feel best in the unstable climate of Siberia.
Also, in the selection process, preference should be given to zoned varieties. The following are new apple varieties zoned for Siberia:
- Siberian souvenir
- Altai crimson
Of the old varieties, the most common are the following:
- White filling
- Bessemyanka Michurinskaya
All of the above apple trees are included in the State Register of Varieties of the Russian Federation. They can be successfully grown in Siberia.
White filling and Darkie
White filling is a very famous and widespread and old variety. The height of the White filling trees ranges from 4 to 5 meters. At a young age, they are characterized by a wide pyramidal crown, which later in the aging process acquires a rounded shape and a light gray bark.
The bulk of the fruits of this variety is concentrated on ringlets. Leaves of medium-sized elliptical white filling. The pubescence on their underside is denser than on the upper one. Large white or slightly pink flowers are considered a distinctive feature of this variety.
The fruits are round-conical and greenish-white in color. Sometimes there is a slight pink color on one of the barrels.
Of the features of the variety, it can also be noted that the fruits become much smaller when the apple tree matures. Fruits taken from a young tree weigh on average from 120 to 150 g, and from an old tree no more than 80 g. The pulp of apples is of a delicate consistency, white and coarse-grained structure. The taste is sweet with a slight sourness. When overripe, the taste of apples deteriorates sharply, they become like crumbly potatoes.
Smuglyanochka is a relatively new apple variety of Altai selection, which was included in the State Register of Varieties in 2005. Differs in a satisfied early ripening of fruits. They can be collected in the first half of August. Smuglyanochka's fruits are very attractive in appearance with an evenly spaced dark red blush on top of which there is a waxy coating.
Their average weight is about 30 g. The taste of apples is moderately sweet, on the whole very good, the flesh is tender. The trees of this variety are of medium height. They are characterized by a dense rounded crown. Winter hardiness is high.
Gornoaltaiskoe and Bayana
Gornoaltaiskoye is a variety of late summer ripening period. The fruits are rather small. Their weight is no more than 50 grams. In appearance, these are medium-sized round apples with ribbing inherent in this particular variety. The main color of these apples is yellow. But it is so densely covered with a bright red blush that you can only see it near the stalk.
Video about columnar apple trees in Siberia:
The skin is smooth, in some cases traces of rustiness may be present at the base of the peduncle. The taste of apples is closer to sweet, but there is also a slight sourness in it. The pulp is characterized by a creamy color and fine grain. The trees of this variety are of medium height, which makes them relatively easy to tolerate sharp temperature fluctuations and cold Siberian winds. The crown is dense, rounded with a significant number of skeletal branches.
Gornoaltaiskoe is one of the most winter-hardy varieties. Of its advantages, it can also be noted that it is resistant to such a common disease of apple trees as scab. For this reason, the variety is very often involved in breeding. Fruiting begins from 4 years old. The fruits have a universal purpose.
They can be consumed both fresh and used for making purees and juices. Among the disadvantages of the variety, one can note the small size of the fruits, which, however, is more than compensated for by their number. And also their short shelf life, which is no more than 20 days.
Bayana is one of the most common large-fruited Siberian varieties. The ripening period of the fruit falls on the beginning of September. Trees of this variety are of medium height with a broom-shaped crown. Its diameter is about 3.5 meters. This one has high frost resistance. The average fruit weight is from 85 to 140 g.
The apples are of the correct rounded shape without pronounced ribbing. The fruit has a solid purple blush on a golden yellow background. In the phase of full biological maturity, apples acquire a slightly purple hue. The skin is firm and smooth to the touch.
The pulp is coarse-grained and creamy in color. Early maturity is another virtue of Bayana. The first apple harvest is possible as early as 3 years of cultivation. This variety does not lag behind in terms of productivity. Up to 140 centners of fruit can be harvested from one hectare. They can be stored for no more than 4 months.
It is quite possible to grow apple trees in Siberia. The most important thing is to choose the right variety that will have a sufficiently high winter hardiness. Also, do not forget about all the necessary agrotechnical measures and proper care.