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Grafting is a procedure that allows you to get new varieties of crops on one trunk. In this case, it is important not only to correctly perform the procedure, but also to prepare the stalk.
- Grafting trees: the advantages of this method
- Preparation for vaccination
- How to vaccinate in the spring: the main ways
Grafting trees: the advantages of this method
Trees are planted for various purposes. With the help of grafting, you can get a high yield with excellent taste. This agrotechnical technique allows you to preserve the beneficial properties of a varietal tree, which can be lost during pollination or the formation of seed material.
If you take a stalk from a tree, then the fruits will appear only after a few years. However, grafting to a rooted shoot will halve the time for fruit to appear. This procedure makes it possible to grow varieties that are not adapted to specific climatic conditions. The root system of the stock is hardy and the plant is frost and drought resistant.
If you choose the right stock, you can grow a dwarf plant. Then the fruits will ripen faster. 2-3 varieties can be grafted to one trunk at once. As a result, different varieties can be harvested from one fruit tree. This saves space on the site. The only negative is that there will be less fruit. There are times when a young tree is exposed to frost or has suffered from pests and rodents. To make the tree "come to life" again, grafting is done with a bridge.
The procedure should be performed in early spring, before the buds are swollen. The optimal time for this is the beginning of March. If you are vaccinated before the start of sap flow, then the cutting may not take root. If done too early, it can damage the tree.
Preparation for vaccination
A few days before the procedure, the grafted trees must be watered. This will increase the flow of sap and contribute to a better lagging of the bark, which greatly facilitates the performance of subsequent work. At the place where the grafting will be carried out, you need to remove the leaves and stems.
For grafting, you should take healthy cuttings and stock. It is recommended to prepare cuttings for grafting in late autumn. Their length should be at least 30-40 cm, and their diameter should be about 7 mm. In this case, there should be 4-5 buds on one cuttings. It is desirable to cut the scion from a young tree.
It is very important to preserve them during the winter. Cuttings are carefully cut, processed, wrapped in foil or burlap and left in a cold place. If the winter is not very frosty, then the cuttings can be prepared in the spring until the buds swell. The day before grafting, update the sections and place them in clean water in a cool place. During this time, the stalk is saturated with moisture, which significantly affects the survival rate.
What is needed for vaccination
For the procedure, you will need a garden pruner, a knife, a small ax and a brush. Any strapping material is used to attach the cutting and rootstock. For this purpose, you can take linen twine, linden bast. You can also use duct tape or adhesive tape, but removing it can damage the bark.
Video about the correct vaccination:
Can be tied with polyethylene. Cut any material into ribbons, the length of which will be 30-40 cm, and the width is 1.5 cm.If you plan to tie with twine or bast, then use a rosin-based garden var. Instead of a var, you can take ordinary plasticine.
How to vaccinate in the spring: the main ways
There are several ways to get vaccinated.
For the bark. This method is used if the thickness of the rootstock and the scion is very different. Cut the bark and insert the cutting into this place, first make a long cut on it. When using this method, the stock is less susceptible to trauma and there is a rapid accretion with the cuttings. An experienced gardener can plant several cuttings on a large rootstock.
In the cut. The grafting can be carried out in the rootstock regardless of the thickness. Cut a gap on the tree trunk so that it narrows downwards. Cut a stalk with two buds on each side and insert into the incision. After that, tie and grease with garden varnish.
Into the cleft. It is recommended to use if rootstock with coarse bark or the last time grafting by other methods was not successful. The method is very good when the rootstock is more than 5 cm thick.
Budding. A single bud, formed last summer, is taken from cuttings harvested in the fall and grafted onto the trunk of another tree. This method is also called bud budding.
Copulation. This method is used when the rootstock and scion have the same thickness. Make oblique cuts on them and connect. Connect the joint and coat with pitch. Sometimes the method of improved copulation is used, in which serifs are made to tightly connect the scion and rootstock.
Ablactation. This method involves the engraftment of two adjacent plants. On trees, cut off the bark with a small part of the wood. At the place of the cut, make the tongues in the form of a split and connect them together. When the scion begins to grow, it must be cut off from the root.
If grafted in the spring, the cuttings will develop during the summer. When choosing a scion method, one should take into account climatic features, the variety and size of the tree, and the season.