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Apple trees in the garden can be found on the site of almost every summer resident. The tree does not require special care, however, in order to obtain a good harvest, you should know and carry out certain agrotechnical measures.
- Features of growing apple trees
- The necessary conditions
- Growing an apple tree from a seed
- Apple tree care: basic agrotechnical measures
- Possible diseases and pests
Features of growing apple trees
You can plant an apple tree at the end of April or in September-October. It is advisable to carry out planting in the autumn, so that the root system is restored and prepared for the growing season. If you did not manage to plant the apple tree on time, then at the end of October the tree needs to be dug in and planted in the spring. If the soil is sandy, then first you need to lay a layer of clay about 10 cm on the bottom, tamp it, and then add humus, peat in equal amounts and mix with the top layer of soil.
Before planting, a month before planting, it is necessary to dig a hole, the depth of which will be 60 cm, and the width - about a meter. Mix the top layer of soil with organic fertilizers. After the soil has settled, make a depression taking into account the size of the tree's root system.
Next, set the seedling in the hole, gently spread the roots and cover with earth. It is recommended to shake the seedling periodically so that the voids between the roots are also filled. This procedure is recommended for two people. When planting, it is important that the root collar is located a couple of centimeters above the ground surface. Then pour 3-4 buckets of water over the tree. If necessary, you can drive a peg side by side and tie up a tree.
The necessary conditions
The soil for apple trees must be fertile. You can use the soil where the potatoes are grown. The soil must necessarily contain nitrogen, this contributes to good fruiting and growth. It is not recommended to grow apple trees on acidic soils and near standing water tables.
It is better to choose open and quiet places for disembarkation. The site should be well lit from all sides. The apple tree does not like strong winds and drafts. It is recommended to grow apple trees not near the house and at a distance from other trees. At the same time, it is undesirable to plant young trees next to adults and old apple trees, since the roots will begin to intertwine.
Growing an apple tree from a seed
To achieve seed germination, it is necessary to create comfortable conditions for this. It is very important to perform stratification as it greatly increases the chance of seed germination. To begin with, the bone is placed in a humid environment for 6 days. The room temperature should be + 5- + 7 degrees. The seeds can be mixed with peat or wet sand in a 1: 3 ratio.
To ensure gas exchange, you can mix moss and sawdust, and put seeds in the mixture. Then the planting material is placed in a refrigerator for 60 days. Once the seeds have sprouted, they need to be transplanted into a large container. A year later, the sprouted apple tree is transplanted into a larger container. After a while, you can transplant into the garden to a permanent place. It is not difficult to grow an apple tree from a seed, you should adhere to the above recommendations.
Apple tree care: basic agricultural techniques
Watering the apple tree after planting is performed once a week until the beginning of August. During dry periods, watering should be abundant. If heavy rains have passed, then it is necessary to loosen the soil for better air flow to the root system. To this end, you need to make small punctures with a pitchfork at a distance of 50 cm from the tree. It is important not to forget to feed the apple tree. The first feeding is performed in the last days of April. For this, 0.5 kg of urea is used.
You can use manure instead. The next feeding is carried out during the flowering period. If the weather is hot and dry, then liquid fertilizer is applied. For this purpose, you can use superphosphate, potassium sulfate or urea. Immediately before and after top dressing, it is necessary to water the soil.
When the fruits begin to ripen, the third feeding is carried out with a solution of nitrophoska with the addition of a little dry sodium humate to it. After harvesting, the last top dressing is performed using potassium sulfate and superphosphate. Fertilizers can be scattered over the soil or watered depending on the weather conditions.
You can start forming the crown and pruning the apple tree in the second year after planting the seedling. The branches should be cut before the sap flow begins - in the spring. At the same time, sick, poorly fruiting or frost-damaged branches are removed. You can form a crown of any type. For novice gardeners, this is a very difficult task. This usually takes 5-6 years.
Apple planting video:
When forming the crown of a young tree, a trunk should be laid. If the apple tree is vigorous, then about 70-80 cm, and if it is weak - 50-55 cm. Performing the first pruning, shorten the top of the stem by 10-12 cm and leave 6-7 buds. This is how annual apple trees are cut.
It is also important to control the number of ovaries and the number of fruits. If not thinned, the apples will not taste good. In autumn, it is imperative to whitewash tree trunks. This will help protect the tree from possible diseases.
Possible diseases and pests
With improper care, fungal diseases can develop. Common diseases that can affect apple trees are scab, powdery mildew, cytosporosis.
Scab. The appearance of brownish spots is characteristic. Over time, they dry out and fall off. The fruits stop growing and black spots with a grayish tint are formed. The tree needs to be treated with antifungal drugs: Horus, Oxykh, etc.
Powdery mildew. Most often it affects shoots, leaves, inflorescences. A distinctive feature is an off-white coating, which later turns brown with the formation of small black dots. Gradually, the leaves begin to turn yellow, dry out and fall off. If there are signs of powdery mildew, the treatment is carried out in the autumn period with copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid. To avoid re-infection, the fallen leaves must be collected and burned.
Cytosporosis. A feature of this disease is the formation of dark spots that grow and acquire a reddish-brown tint. You need to process the plant at least 3 times using the following drugs: Hom, Fundazol, etc.
Of the pests of the apple tree, the codling moth, hawthorn, scale insect, leafworm are often affected. To get rid of pests, drugs Aktar, Tsimbush, etc. are used. Drought, severe frosts, high soil moisture, etc. contribute to the development of fungal diseases. To avoid the occurrence of such diseases, you should regularly take care of the apple tree.