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Broccoli is a subspecies of cabbage that does not form forks, but a head of buds. In recent years, broccoli has become more and more popular among cabbage crops. Let's try to figure out how to grow broccoli in the country.
- How to plant broccoli seedlings
- Broccoli and outdoor
- The choice of varieties of broccoli for growing in the country
How to plant broccoli seedlings
Unlike cabbage, broccoli has a one-year development cycle. Broccoli needs to be harvested before its buds open and the entire head turns yellow with flowers.Although broccoli is native to Italy, there are varieties that grow well and produce crops in temperate regions.
In addition, with the right varieties, you can not only have fresh broccoli all season, but also put it in storage. You can plant broccoli in the country both directly in the open ground and through seedlings.
Sowing broccoli seedlings
For broccoli seedlings, both ready-made soil and soil mixture are suitable, which will be prepared with your own hands from the following components:
- 10 kg of garden soil
- 1 kg of wood ash
- 0.2 kg of chalk or lime
- 0.2 kg of sand
It is important not to use the land where cabbage or other related crops previously grew. The soil must be well mixed and free of large parts, foreign inclusions. In addition, before sowing, it must be moistened and allowed to stand for several hours, it must be moist, but crumbly.
Preparing broccoli seeds for sowing
To get strong broccoli seedlings, its seeds can be prepared in the following way:
- heat water to + 45
- dip the seeds there for 20 minutes
- then immerse them in ice water for 5 minutes
Such treatment will accelerate the germination of broccoli seeds and will allow you to get healthy planting material. Before you put the seeds in the water, you need to read the information on the package. If the seeds have undergone industrial processing, for example, with such a substance as tiram, then they cannot be soaked, but must be planted immediately in the ground. As a rule, seeds of imported, mainly Dutch origin are processed with thiram.
Sowing dates of seedlings
Considering that at the age of 35 - 40 days the seedlings are ready to move into open ground, then sowing broccoli seeds for seedlings can be done in early April.
- In the seedling boxes, make 1 cm deep grooves and sow seeds in them. The distance between the grooves is 2 cm, the distance between the seeds is 2 cm.
- Cover the seedling box with glass and wait for the shoots to appear. When the seeds germinate together, the glass is removed.
The seedlings do not need additional light in April. At the stage of 1-2 true leaves, broccoli dive into separate pots 5 by 5 cm in size. When diving, the seedling deepens almost to the cotyledon leaves. At the age of 35 - 40 days, broccoli is ready to be moved to an open garden.
Broccoli and outdoor
At the end of May, you can sow broccoli seeds directly in the garden or plant cabbage on it as seedlings. Regardless of the planting method, the bed should be dug up and filled with rotted cow dung, about 8 - 10 kg per sq. meter, one kg of ash and a large spoonful of superphosphate are also introduced. If the soil is sandy, then add a bucket of clay, preferably red.
Given that the heads of some varieties of broccoli cabbage reach impressive sizes, the distance between seedlings should be about half a meter. The seeds can be sown thicker and then sown at the desired distance.
It is advisable to adhere to the seeding rate - 0.2 g per sq. m. By the time of transplanting, broccoli seedlings should not be higher than 12-15 cm and with 5-6 true leaves. Plant broccoli in deep enough holes. The roots are covered so that the plant remains as in an earthen funnel. When removing weeds and loosening, as well as as it grows, the soil is raked under the bush.
Broccoli care boils down to the following:
- for watering, in a normal summer in a day or two, in a hot summer - every day
- to three dressings: the first one 14 days after planting, the second one - 14 days after the first one, for top dressing they take a kg of mullein and dilute in 10 liters of water, the third top dressing is a complex mineral before the formation of the ovary
- timely cut of the central head
- the introduction of mineral fertilizing after cutting the head to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots
- disease prevention and pest control
Broccoli of early varieties after cutting are stored for 10 -12 days, later varieties are laid for storage. Broccoli of late varieties are harvested in October, stored at temperatures from 0 to + 4 for 90 days. It remains to choose the right varieties to provide yourself with fresh broccoli for 8 - 9 months of the year.
The choice of varieties of broccoli for growing in the country
Early varieties of broccoli:
- Milady is a very early hybrid, resistant to adverse conditions, heads weighing up to 1.5 kg, the color of the buds is blue-green, characterized by a high iodine content
- Naxos is an early hybrid, grows well in both cold weather and high temperatures, head size 0.5 kg
Medium broccoli varieties:
- Marathon - a variety resistant to powdery mildew, head weighing up to 1.0 kg, fine-grained
- Bosphorus is an excellent variety with extended ripening, harvested in summer and early autumn
Late varieties of broccoli:
- Fiesta is a late hybrid, perfectly tolerates adverse weather conditions, the heads are large, even in size, with high commercial qualities
- Continental - late hybrid, forms a dense and lying central head
Broccoli spread first in Europe, and then in Asia and America. Currently, it is not only recognized in the world as one of the best varieties of cabbage, but also as a useful vegetable in the prevention of many diseases, including cancer.
Video on favorable conditions for broccoli: