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Humanity has been using garlic for many millennia. Garlic is of winter and spring types, differing in appearance, properties and cultivation technology. In Russia, 7 varieties of spring garlic are cultivated, and 19 varieties of winter garlic.
- How to distinguish winter garlic from spring garlic
- Types of planting material for growing winter garlic
- When is it better to plant and harvest winter garlic
How to distinguish winter garlic from spring garlic
Based on the name, one can understand that winter garlic is sown before winter, spring garlic - in spring. They differ in appearance. If you compare the two heads of these species, you can see that the garlic planted in autumn has several large cloves in one row. Usually there are from 4 to 12. They are located around a solid rod. The denticles are covered with a pink-violet sheath.
Spring garlic has no core, and there are a lot of cloves - up to 25 pieces. They are very small and arranged in several rows. Winter garlic is very difficult to preserve until spring. It is dug up in the summer and used for food and conservation. Part of the crop is used as seed. This garlic tastes more pungent than spring garlic, which can be consumed all winter, because it does not dry out and does not lose its properties.
Types of planting material for growing winter garlic
Garlic planted in autumn tolerates frosts up to 25 °, in early spring it gives green shoots, and in summer - arrows, which usually break out to increase the yield. If arrows are left on the largest bulbs, additional seed can be obtained. First, the arrows are folded in a spiral, then gradually they straighten.
When the arrows are finally straightened, you can harvest the crop that forms on the peduncle.
For this, the plants should be dug up, tied in small bunches and stored in a dry place for about a month. Then carefully separate the bulbs and heads with bulbs - air bulbs, which are the seed. If you miss the time in harvesting, the bulbs are airy bulbs, they will spill out into the ground and small garlic bushes will grow from them.
Cloves of garlic from the bulbs can be planted in the fall, and the air bulbs are best sown in the spring, as they can freeze out in winter. The method of propagation with air bulbs is very effective and economical, because one bulb of garlic contains only a few cloves, and one arrow contains up to 100 small bulbs, each of which can yield a crop. It is recommended to keep the bulbs in the refrigerator before sowing.
Interestingly, each bulb can produce an onion consisting of one round clove up to 3 mm in size, which is called a "one-clove". The one-teeth are ready to eat. If they are planted in the ground in the fall, then a large head of garlic weighing up to 150 g will grow out of each.
Thus, the material for planting garlic before winter can be of three types:
- One-toothed bulbs (sets) grown from bulbs
- Onion cloves
When is it better to plant and harvest winter garlic
It is very important to consider the planting and harvesting times of winter garlic. They planted it in the fall, trying to carry out this work 3-4 weeks before the onset of constant cold weather. Depending on the climatic zone, garlic planting before winter can be carried out at the end of September - mid-November. Before frost, the garlic should have time to germinate into the root, but not discard the foliage, and be prepared to leave for the winter.
In cold climates, winter garlic can freeze out, so a method of protecting plantings with a covering material is practiced. It can be dry stems of plants, covered with a film on top, roofing felt or other materials at hand. In early spring, the shelter is removed.
When the soil warms up to 5–10 ° C, the garlic starts to grow actively. In the summer, you should break out the arrows so that more nutrients enter the bulb. A sign of ripening garlic is yellowed lower leaves and straightened arrows. If you rush to harvest, the bulbs do not split well into cloves, and if they are delayed, they can break up into separate slices right in the ground.
Agrotechnology for growing winter garlic
Before planting garlic, you need to choose a suitable planting site. He does not like shade and does not tolerate strong drafts, reacts well to organic fertilizers.
The predecessors of garlic in the beds can be zucchini, cucumbers, early varieties of cabbage, pumpkin. After harvesting potatoes, it is not recommended to grow garlic, so infection with fusarium, nematode can occur.
Garlic depletes the soil, so it can be planted in one place no earlier than four years later. It grows well in high beds heated by the sun. It is better to prepare a place for garlic a month before planting so that the earth settles well and compacted. Compost, humus are introduced for digging, but in no case fresh manure. If the soil is acidic, ash should be added to it.
The seed must be dried and warmed up in the sun. The onion is divided into teeth, without peeling the scales. Choose healthy, undamaged specimens. You can disinfect the teeth by holding them in a solution of copper sulfate (1 tbsp. L for 5 liters of water, "Maxim", a pink solution of potassium permanganate).
The landing pattern is something like this. The distance between the rows in the garden bed should be about 25 cm, the cloves in the row are planted at a distance of 15–20 cm from each other. It is difficult to care for plantings that are too thickened, the bulbs grow small. The rows are best placed in the direction from east to west, so that during growth the plants are well lit and warm. Garlic cloves are planted to a depth of 10-15 cm.
Advice. When weeding, especially shortly before harvesting the garlic, the soil under the plants is raked away so that they are well illuminated by the sun. This contributes to better formation of bulbs and faster ripening.
There is nothing difficult in growing winter garlic. A well-chosen place, timely planting and harvesting, proper care will provide the gardener with a good harvest of a very useful product.
All the subtleties of planting and growing winter garlic in the video: