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The evonimo (also called fusaggine) is one of the most widespread shrubs in the gardens: the persistent leaf species are a classic for creating beautiful hedges. Those deciduous are appreciated for their beautiful autumn fruits.
There are about 170 varieties of evonyms, practically all over the world; they can be shrubs, small trees, ground cover and climbing plants, both deciduous and evergreen. E. fortunei is a small evergreen shrub with oval, green leaves; there are numerous cultivars with leaves of various shades, even variegated; it is widely used in flowerbeds and as a border or small hedge, with compact growth and quite slow.
Euonymus europaeus has deciduous leaves, in autumn they acquire a purple-red color; produces small pink berries, with orange seeds, very decorative. Euonymus japonicus has roundish, thick and leathery leaves, a small shrub with compact and vigorous growth, there are varieties with variegated leaves.
Euonymus alatus is a medium-sized shrub with deciduous leaves, very decorative in autumn. The evonyms produce small greenish or purple flowers in spring, followed by small dark or pink berries. In autumn the shrubs are pruned by eliminating the dry or damaged branches from the weather, and the branches of the hedge shrubs are shortened by about a quarter, in order to keep them more compact.
These plants can develop without problems in any position both sunny and shaded; but surely it is advisable to place them in full sun to get the best possible development. The Euonymus alatus is not afraid of the cold and can withstand the heat of the most torrid summers.
In general, these shrubs are suitable in the city or coast, since, being a rather rustic and resistant variety, they tolerate pollution and brackish air without any particular problems.
Also in this they are tolerant: they grow well both in the sun and in partial shade. Clearly the deciduous varieties prefer a cooler position in the South and the evergreen ones a brighter and warmer in the North (especially the variegated cultivars).
Description, classification and origins
The genus Euonymus (which belongs to the family of the Celastraceae) includes at least 160 species spread in the spontaneous state throughout the world, but mostly from Europe and Southeast Asia. Making an overall description is difficult because it is a very heterogeneous genre. It includes shrubs and trees that can range from as little as 30 cm high to 7 meters. The leaves also vary greatly from species to species: there are opposite and alternate ones, oval, lanceolate and dentate. There are also many colors: light green, dark, yellow or rosé. An aspect that makes them all interesting is the autumn production of fruits, usually very lively and with a particular shape. In the horticultural field, mainly cultivars obtained from the Japanese name are used: they have the advantage of being very tolerant, of growing slowly and requiring little maintenance.
THE EVONIMO IN BRIEF
|Family and Latin name||Celastraceae, Euonymus (Europaeus, Japonicus, alatus, fortunei); more than 160 species|
|Type of plant||Tree or shrub|
|Leaf color||Green, yellow, pink|
|Foliage||I fall or persist|
|Height||From 30 cm to 7 meters|
|irrigations||To read to medium|
|Ground||Tolerant, better fresh and rich, calcareous or clayey|
|Minimum temperature||Some are very rustic, others -7 ° C|
|soil pH||Neutral or sub-alkaline|
|Composting||Organic soil conditioner|
|Pests and diseases||Aphids, cochineal, oziorrinco, ragna of the apple tree, cryptogam|
|Use||Isolated specimen, groups, hedges, topiary, vase|
THE EVONIMO CALENDAR
|Pruning||April-August (evergreens), March (fall)|
|Composting||Autumn (manure), spring (granular for green plants|
|Winter protection||From November to March|
|Flowering||Spring-autumn (depending on the species|
Size and posture
Foliage, flowers and fruits
PERSISTENT LEAF VARIETY
|Euonymus fortunei 'Harlequin'||Up to 30 cm||Green with cream spots||Very rustic||Ground cover, borders or vase|
|Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald Gaiety'||Up to 50 cm, bushy||Bright green with white and pink margin||Very rustic||Ground cover, low hedge, vase|
|Euonymus japonicus 'Pierrlolino'||Up to 30 cm, bushy rounded||Cream colored with green spots, new white leaves||Up to -5 ° C, little sun||Ground cover, low hedge, vase|
|Euonymus japonicus 'Aureomarginatus'||Up to 1.5 m||Green on with golden margins||Very rustic it tolerates brackish soils||Hedge, large vase, isolated specimen|
|Euonymus japonicus 'Aureovariegata'||Up to 1 m||Bright green variegated gold||Quite rustic it tolerates brackish soils||Hedge, large vase, isolated specimen|
|Euonymus japonicus 'Green'||Up to 3 m||Very dense, bright green, white flowers and pink fruits||Very rustic||Hedge, isolated specimen, groups|
|Euonymus japonicus 'Microphyllus'||Up to 1 meter||Medium green, small leaves||Very rustic||Hedge, isolated specimen, groups|
|Euonymus nanus var. turkestanicus||Up to 1.20 m||Dark green, flowers and red fruits||Very rustic||Hedge, isolated specimen, groups|
CADUCA LEAF VARIETY
|Euonymus europaeus||Up to 3 meters||First green, then yellow and finally red. Fruits in the shape of a pink-orange bishop's hat||Rusticissimo||In a group, isolated, hedge|
|Euonymus europaeus 'Red Cascade'||Up to 3 meters||First green, then deep red. Red fruits||Rusticissimo||In a group, isolated, hedge|
|Euonymus alatus||Up to 2 meters|
(1 meter the "Compactus")
|First green, then purple and orange. Red fruits. "Fire ball" with more intense colors||Extremely rustic, it fears the heat||In a group, isolated, hedge|